In Conversation with eMunie Founder Dan Hughes

In Conversation with eMunie Founder Dan Hughes

THELOGICALINDIAN - NewsBTC contempo got a adventitious to allege with the architect and architect of eMunie Dan Hughes As we dwelled into discussing this adolescent cryptocurrency we got to apperceive about the purposes it is meant to accompany Hughes discussed how it took him about three years to body a absolutely avant-garde bill and how he wishes to advance it added advanced already it comes out of the beta phase

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Here are the some of key excerpts from our account with Hughes:

Q: What is the history of eMunie?

eMunie has been in development now for about 2.5 years, with the aboriginal cipher cut aback in March 2024.

That seems like alone bygone but a lot has happened aback then, not alone with the progression of the technology but additionally with accepted activity dramas!  This will apparently be absolutely long….

Before starting the eMunie project, I was attractive for article new to get my teeth into and had accepted about Bitcoin for some time.  I hadn’t absolutely dug into Bitcoins belly at the time due to added commitments, so I absitively to investigate, apprentice the technology, and see if I could appear up with any absorbing projects account to develop.

As my investigations took me added into Bitcoin and block alternation technology, I accomplished that although this was acutely ground-breaking stuff, it was still actual abundant a affidavit of concept/experiment.  I feared that it could potentially cruise over its limitations and abbreviate comings in the abutting as it grew, which ultimately fabricated me catechism my accommodation to advance for it.

Instead I absitively to booty Bitcoin as inspiration, and attack to advance a technology that complimented what was genius, and overcame what was lacking.  I spent about 6 months in absolute basic ideas, drafting architectures and such to actuate what was accessible afore absolutely starting the eMunie project.

I originally anticipation that I could advance the technology and accept a absolution applicant accessible in 6-8 months, which was accessible with the aboriginal scope.  As I progressed with development I begin myself analytic some of the antecedent architecture (as it active a block chain) and its adeptness to accommodated the goals I had set.  I absitively that it wasn’t acceptable abundant and I wasn’t able to compromise, afterwards all, I was self-funding and for already in my career I didn’t accept a applicant calling me up every day for advance and ambience deadlines.

It was at this point that the activity took its bigger footfall abroad from Bitcoin.  I spent a few weeks developing a block timberline abstraction to alter the block chain, as it would acquiesce for a greater throughput of transactional bulk and bigger adventitious of affair the goals I’d set.  I re-scheduled the planned absolution date and agitated on development abounding beef ahead.

With the planned absolution date fast abutting and development activity well, I absitively that although it was applicable to abide to cocky armamentarium the activity column launch, it fabricated bigger faculty to accept some alien banking bang which could be acclimated to abide development and advance eMunie added efficiently.  A abbreviate fundraiser was captivated and met with a acceptable response, with a ample majority of association associates alliance banking abutment to the activity and I was now assertive that eMunie could accomplish all I had planned.

Unfortunately not connected after, the activity met its bigger claiming to date and it decidedly wasn’t a abstruse one.

A hacker had managed to get admission access to fundraiser and claimed Bitcoin wallets, forth with a cardinal of my online accounts such as email, exchanges, forums, alike the damn  ISP ascendancy console for our servers was breached and consecutive calamity was caused.  We had been adversity from a aerial bulk of attacks on our servers for a brace of weeks above-mentioned to this breach, but (wrongly) affected that acceptable aegis was in abode both at our end and any account providers we were using.

As a aftereffect a cogent bulk of Bitcoin was taken and the fallout from this accident was absolutely amazing to say the least!

The advertisement of the annexation was met with gross cynicism, which was to be expected, as there were again as still today a lot of scams activity on in the crypto-space.  Added damaging was that a lot of the activity supporters who had apprenticed banking abutment additionally got algid anxiety and capital out.  In all over 900 BTC was taken in apprenticed and claimed funds, at a time aback BTC was at the top end of $600 in valuation.  Unsurprisingly a lot of bodies didn’t apprehend me, nor the activity to survive it and capital off the address with their pledges aback ASAP afore the activity folded!

Thankfully above-mentioned to eMunie I’d had a few  advantageous ventures which  I’d exited at the appropriate time, and so was advantaged to accept a acceptable bulk of banking security.   Over the advance of a brace of months, abundant stress, and amaranthine bamboozlement of assets, every distinct actuality who capital out got their pledges back.

These contest set the eMunie activity aback significantly!  Not alone in a banking manner, but additionally the affecting assessment on myself was acute and agitated added afterward the annexation with connected accusations of me/eMunie actuality a scam/vapourware and my focus suffered for months after.

I wasn’t activity to be exhausted though, and not already did I anticipate about quitting.  With advice and abutment from our association I eventually got aback to my focus and started to advance on further.  In adjustment to abide allotment the activity and ensure I could do so for the accountable future, I awash my home and any actual admired assets and confused into a abate place.  The aboriginal funds I had larboard over from my antecedent acceptable affluence afterwards accoutrement the annexation and reimbursing over bisected the pledges, additional the defalcation of those assets accept kept the activity activity up to this point about 18 months later.

After all the babble and aberration of the antecedent months, I absitively it was best to go beneath the radar, advance on and accept an “its accessible aback its ready” mentality.  From that day until alone a few weeks ago, I rarely alike in the crypto-community and concentrated alone on development of the project.

Moving on, appear the end of 2024 a lot of advance had been fabricated and with best of the ambit for a V1.0 complete, a barrage was assuredly aural ability and was accessible in Q1 2024.  However I was accepting some anxiety about the activity of the block timberline technology I’d developed, as we were accepting issues accepting the VISA calibration transaction endless it should (in theory) of been able to abutment during testing and I was anxious that these issues ability account problems afterwards if I could not acquisition a solution.

I connected with development while absorption solutions to the botheration and what to do.  This was apparently the toughest accommodation I’d anytime had to accomplish with commendations to any project.  Atom a ample allocation of already avant-garde architecture for article absolutely new, untried, but potentially better, or compromise, abide and bang the can bottomward the alley as a accessible barrage was so close.

Eventually afterwards weeks of application and for a 2nd time in the projects development, I absitively to atom the absolute technology, now the block tree, in favour of an abstraction based on channels.

During December of 2014-Feb 2024 I implemented the new ‘channelled ledger’ architecture and formed out the aboriginal analysis applicant to the beta testers.  After-effects of testing locally had been impressive, but controlled analysis after-effects beggarly annihilation as the absolute apple consistently throws accidental factors into the equation.

The action was account it, alike the aboriginal accomplishing of channels was out-performing the block timberline in a cardinal of areas, while acceptance adaptability and affection possibilities that block chains or copse would be clumsy to provide.  Today, 6 months on, auctioning block copse in favour of channels was the best accommodation I accept fabricated so far with attention to the activity and it will acquiesce eMunie to accommodated and beat abounding of its aboriginal goals.

How is eMunie altered from Bitcoin and added altcoins?

There are a abounding differences that set eMunie abreast from Bitcoin and added crypto-currencies as it is advised to be a accepted purpose financial, communication, and accumulator belvedere accoutrement abounding use cases.  Ultimately the end ambition is for eMunie to accommodate a defended and cocky independent eco-system area users can transact, barter and communicate.

Communication is a big allotment of our roadmap, and the belvedere will abutment a cardinal of advice methods over time.  The antecedent eMunie absolution will accommodate simple inbox messaging (with attachments) and babble rooms, and be continued over time to accommodate burning messaging, micro-blogging, amusing networking, articulation & video calling and more.

Trade is additionally a big accord for us, and the antecedent absolution will accommodate an affluent eBay-esque barter area users can buy and advertise appurtenances of any affectionate and additionally a decentralized barter for trading assets (the DEX is additionally important for economics).

That aside, conceivably the best analytical of all differences are the antithesis technology, accord algorithm and the economics of the abject bill EMU (electronic budgetary unit) which adopts an adaptable model.


Getting to the antithesis first, eMunie does not use a block alternation as already mentioned.  Instead we developed a technology alleged “ledger channelling” which affords eMunie a cardinal of allowances both in agreement of achievement and flexibility.

Rather than clue acquittal outputs, which are after acclimated as inputs (as best block chains do) the channelled antithesis advance balances instead, with the affairs for anniversary antithesis identifier residing in a channel.  The aesthetics is that it’s added able to anticipate 100,000s users balances from becoming  negative, than it is to analysis every transaction ascribe those 100,000s of users accomplish beyond the absolute antithesis to ensure integrity.

Bitcoin and abounding added crypto-currencies that accept the input/output model, charge to accept a almanac of all unspent transaction outputs (UTXO) accessible at all times so that new affairs can be absolute accordingly.  This almanac is usually in RAM for performance, and as the cardinal of users, and appropriately transactions, grows so does this UTXO.  If a crypto-currency was to accomplish alike a allocation of VISA calibration loads, this UTXO would abound bound to be 10s if not 100s of GB in size.

Balance tracking removes this potentially ability athirst requirement, as blockage the sum of all transaction action in a distinct approach to ensure abundant funds for a absorb is abundant added efficient, can advance disc accumulator and so is added ability friendly.

Furthermore, the act of tracking balances and adopting channels allows eMunie to be the alone belvedere able to abutment native, decentralized debit cards that can advance absolute accouterments that merchants already own to action VISA/Mastercard payments.  These debit cards can be issued by a trusted 3rd affair in the accepted manner, or, and added importantly, a user could actualize their own with cheap, calmly purchased, off the shelf EMV reader/writer accouterments and a bare card.

Another avant-garde affection that a channelling  allows is the act of administration the abounding antithesis into added acquiescent chunks calmly and securely.  Instead of ascent angular like all added platforms, eMunie scales horizontally.

Due to channels actuality abandoned from anniversary other, a bulge in the arrangement that is ability or achievement bound can opt to serve alone a allocation of the absolute antithesis to the network, instead of actuality afar absolutely as the arrangement bulk grows and it becomes overwhelmed.

The bigger achievement that antithesis tracking and channels provides, added the act of administration allows the arrangement to accept acutely aerial ante of transactional processing capability.

For example, lets accept that the absolute eMunie arrangement consisted of 1000 Raspberry Pis and that anniversary could action 20 affairs per second.  Without administration the absolute arrangement bulk accommodation is 20 tps and no more.  With partitioning, it is accessible to configure the arrangement so that the absolute transactional abstracts set is breach into a cardinal of partitions.

Say for our archetype we capital 10 partitions, with anniversary allotment absolute a abreast according administration of channels.  Beyond 1000 Pis we could accomplish a back-up agency of 100, with 100 of those Pis captivation allotment #1, the next  100 captivation allotment #2,  and so on.

Those 1000 Pis can now parallelize the absolute load, so alike admitting anniversary allotment can still alone abutment 20 tps, there are now 10 partitions, so the absolute arrangement bulk adequacy increases to 200 tps.  Aback because the added aerial of communicating and managing the partitions, the absoluteness would be a bulk accommodation of  about 170 tps, still abundant bigger over the aboriginal 20 tps.

If added able accouterments is acclimated as a admeasurement of baseline bulge performance, and a beyond cardinal of partitions are adopted , it should bound become credible that the bulk scalability of the eMunie arrangement will be added to none and could potentially beat abounding 100,000 tps.


Active accord in eMunie is accomplished by relying on an anytime evolving set of signees who vote on the accepted accompaniment of a set of abstracts and in the accident of a conflict, the accompaniment with the majority vote wins.  The signees charge be account nodes (SN) which will about booty allotment in advancement the antithesis (or a allotment of it), but may additionally accommodate added casework such as messaging, marketplaces, chat, accumulator etc.  Due to the adaptability of our accord algorithm, this aforementioned algorithm can administer accord not alone to transactional data, but any set of abstracts for which there are account nodes associated.

The action is absolutely absolutely simple, focussing on transactions, every transaction that is created contains endorsements of one or added account bulge IDs (SNID) that the basic bulge (ON) creating the transaction is affiliated to.  The ON takes accomplish to verify that these SN are absolutely accomplishing what they affirmation by presenting simple zero-knowledge proofs of assignment periodically, the SNs that canyon these simple tests are again acceptable for endorsement in affairs the ON makes.

These best afresh accustomed SNs are again the abutting set of signers which vote to actuate the actual set of transaction abstracts authoritative up the accepted antithesis state.  SNs who voted differently, or non-SNs that accept the incorrect state, can again booty measures to add/remove affairs so as to adjust with the majority.  The action again repeats application the accustomed SNs in the abutting set of transactions, and so on, accouterment an anytime alteration set of signees, but a reliable and defended consensus.


Economic adherence and bulk animation is a key affair afflictive Bitcoin added crypto-currencies and is proving to accept a adverse aftereffect on acceptance by the mainstream.

A key agitator of these issues faced by added currencies is the appliance of a fixed, or bound supply, in an attack to actualize a deflationary bill as adjoin to a changeless or inflationary one.  There is a accepted stigma associated to annihilation labelled as inflationary and the gross acumen is that aggrandizement = bad / deflationary = good.  Rarely admitting do I attestant supporters of the deflationary archetypal absolutely accept the acceptation of both theories in the assorted contexts they are used, nor do I see a accepted compassionate of the pitfalls of both.

The basis botheration with deflationary economics area a bill has a bound accumulation and strict, connected discharge action is that the bulk of a bill assemblage is acutely acute to alike the aboriginal of change in demand, and due to the anchored and adapted attributes of the supply, alone one of two variables of the currency, value, can change to adjust with accumulation and demand.

Compounding the botheration added is that a deflationary bill is apparent as a acceptable advance vehicle, so belief is additionally rife.

Finally is the administration botheration of new bill units, which is about concentrated to beneath than 1% of the user base, added exacerbating the abeyant for animation and manipulation.

Ultimately both inflationary (fiat) and deflationary (Bitcoin) bread-and-butter models can be actual annihilative if not managed correctly, apply anemic policies, become affected to animal abetment or abominably implemented.

eMunie attempts to abode these issues by adopting a cardinal of avant-garde ideas, which aback activated in unison, should ensure a abiding bulk over time, defence adjoin manipulation, and a fair administration of new bill to the user base.

We looked at the bill accumulation aboriginal of all and absitively we had to accede both variables of currency, that is bulk and quantity, to accomplish continued appellation stability.  We adopted an adaptable accumulation archetypal whereby the bulk of bill in apportionment at any point can access or abatement depending on a cardinal of signals, mainly calm from the chip decentralized exchange.  The sampling of appeal to accumulation can be common (per minute sampling or less), and primarily considers adjustment bulk and aggregate over a mid-long appellation sampling period.

Using these and added accompanying metrics acquired from the barter is acceptable for the arrangement to accept accord on the optimum bulk of apportionment adapted at any moment.  The arrangement as a accomplished can again booty accomplish to increase, or abatement the supply, which switches the bread-and-butter archetypal from inflationary to deflationary and aback as required.  As a result, continued appellation bulk adherence can be acquired with up or bottomward trends of bulk acceptable abundant smoother and added predictable.

Second on the account was abbreviate appellation bulk swings, or added specifically, abetment via pump and depression and added tactics.  We capital to ensure continued appellation stability, acceptance bit-by-bit trends and movements in value, but brand out abbreviate appellation spikes.

This is accomplished by way of a bill buffer, which the arrangement and alone the arrangement controls and is absolutely automated.

Simply the mechanics are as follows: in the accident of a pump, whereby a affair is affairs up ample amounts of EMU on the centralized barter to drag the price, the arrangement will acknowledge by affairs a abundance of its affluence at a bulk added in band with the continued appellation trend appropriately befitting the bulk down.  In the adverse case and in the accident of a dump, the arrangement will buy the EMU actuality awash at a bulk added in band with the continued appellation trend, appropriately befitting the bulk up.

The absorber is additionally a primary agency in abbreviation the bill accumulation in the accident of excess,  as affluence can be burnt.

Generally the arrangement will attack to advance this absorber at an adapted akin to ensure it can annihilate all but the best austere of manipulation.  It will itself accept a allocation of anew created supply, ensuring that is consistently has a acceptable agency of active abbreviate appellation swings and befitting animation to a minimum.

How does one acquire eMunie? Can it be mined?

The abject bill assemblage EMU can be becoming in two means and does not absorb mining.  Mining is not a acceptable adjustment for new bill arising as it cannot accomplish two of eMunie’s bulk goals, which are ability and fair distribution.  While the above can be accomplished with Affidavit of Stake algorithms and added variants, the closing is abundant harder to accomplish with accepted algorithms, appropriately eMunie takes a altered approach.

The aboriginal adjustment is artlessly absorption on annual balance, whereby an annual with an EMU antithesis can affirmation a allocation of any anew appropriate accumulation into existence.  50% of new accumulation is allocated to balances on accounts, with the added 50% actuality allocated to the additional arising mechanism.

For example, should the absolute bulk of EMU currently in actuality be 100,000, and a absolute accumulation of 110,000 EMU is required, 5000 EMU is allocated to antithesis on annual claims.  Appropriately an annual with 1000 EMU can affirmation 50 of the 5,000 allocated from the absolute 10,000 EMU deficit.

These claims, or interest, can be fabricated at any time and an annual does not accept to be online to be eligible.  An annual may be offline for a abiding aeon of time, and aloft that annual actuality opened in the users client, any and all accomplished absorption claims can be made.

The additional adjustment of new bill arising is a little added complicated and addresses the “lottery botheration ” of affidavit of work.  Unlike Bitcoin and others, in eMunie every bulge is paid for assignment done in the system, and can affirmation a allocation of the new accumulation according to that assignment metric.

Work done by a annual bulge is bent from the endorsements that are present in transactions.  These endorsements accord a adequately authentic annual of what SNs are online at what times, and how abundant assignment they are doing.  A annual bulge that is affiliated to a lot of nodes and accomplishing a lot of work, will accept a college cardinal of endorsements over a aeon of time than an annual bulge that is affiliated to beneath nodes and accomplishing beneath work.

From this advice we can again administer a agnate action as we do with balances on account, but rather than application balances, we use the abundance of endorsements.

As per the antecedent example,  should the absolute bulk of EMU currently in actuality be 100,000, and a absolute accumulation of 110,000 EMU is required, 5000 EMU is allocated to assignment claims.  Assuming that 10,000 endorsements accept been fabricated back the aftermost assignment affirmation was presented, and the claiming bulge has 1,000 endorsements in that time, that bulge is appropriately able to affirmation 500 EMU of the 5,000 allocated from the absolute 10,000 EMU deficit.

These two mechanisms of accumulation arising ensure that new accumulation is broadcast fairly, antithesis absorption provides an allurement for those that do not ambition to run annual nodes, and an authentic assignment almanac ensures that operators of any annual nodes are paid appropriately for any assignment that they do.

Doesn’t bearding transaction account betrayal eMunie to acknowledged threats?

This accessible approaching blackmail was advised from day one, and we capital to assure the belvedere as abundant as accessible while still accouterment bearding functions for users that appetite it.  We absitively to acquiesce aspects of anonymity to be configurable to the users requirements.

In the absence configuration, the aboriginal absolution of eMunie will be pseudo-anonymous, but alms a slight advance over Bitcoin and added crypto bill platforms due to abode decoupling and encryption of meta data.

If a user wishes his affairs to be accessible and identifiable, conceivably a merchant for tax acknowledgment purposes, he can configure which apparatus of the transaction should be created after encryption, and can opt to accommodate some added identifiable advice if he wishes.

In the case of the merchant accepting a acquittal from a customer, the barter capacity would accede with the settings they accept called and be adequate if configured as such, admitting the merchants would accede with settings he had chosen.

Should addition again ambition to analysis the merchant with adapted settings, they will be able to ascertain that the merchant has accustomed a acquittal of 10 from affair C the customer, or beatific a acquittal of 15 to affair D, but will not be able to appearance the abode or added advice of C or D unless they too accept configured it to be public.

We anticipate this is an adequate band-aid to acquiesce those that charge to be identifiable for acknowledged affidavit to be so, and those that ambition to be bearding to accept their needs met.

In after versions of eMunie, abounding anonymity appearance are on the alley map affective forward  as we capital to apply on speed, scalability, bread-and-butter adherence and affluence of use for V1.0.  That said, the options accent aloft for agreement will additionally be present in later, bigger anonymity features.

When can we apprehend eMunie to appear out of beta phase?

Internally we accept a acting apprehension that this should be ancient in Q1 2024, this is accountable to change should it be appropriate as we’d rather do it appropriate than blitz out the aperture and accept to administer the assured issues.  The best reliable date I can accord you will be on the day it goes out the door.

However, development of the amount is about 90% complete, the amount actuality the capital absolutist of back a absolution will be possible, and as yet there is no break that Q1 is too far out of reach.

Lots of added assignment is additionally underway such as the development of adaptable audience and the aggregation should accept the aboriginal versions of these in 2-3 months, added development of the debit cards and integration, APIs, scripting accoutrement and lots of added absorbing stuff.

What are eMunie’s approaching plans?

Once the final stages of development are completed and eMunie is accessible to launch, business will be a key breadth of focus and priority.  I’ve begin that this is defective in all areas of the crypto-currency industry, and business is about consistently accustomed a aback seat.

We acquire a absolute cycle out and business plan devised and accessible to go, targeting assorted territories, demographics and industries which should see eMunie accomplish fast advance on the acceptance front.

Primarily we are targeting accumulation bazaar users/ consumers and developing a cardinal of aloft retail opportunities, both on and offline, to abetment in architecture a ample basement bound so as to acquiesce absolute apple use of the belvedere and currency.

A key basic of the offline rollout is of advance the built-in decentralized debit card, as it lowers the barrier to access for non-technical individuals acceptance them to use the belvedere in a accustomed address and acquire the benefits.  It will additionally acquiesce merchants to acquire EMU and added accurate currencies with aught amount or added outlay.

We’re additionally planning our assorted announcement campaigns, which will beset avant-garde and acceptable media types and attack to deflate agenda currencies to the accumulation bazaar as able-bodied as advance the eMunie brand.

Finally we will be accessory a cardinal of conferences and contest such as CoinFest 2024, of which we are a all-around sponsor, so that we can appoint with the industry, users and abeyant ally actively.

Funding all of the aloft will be interesting, but we’re now at the date area we are adequate to alpha attractive at the assorted options available.  A key advantage that we acquire over added projects is that the abstraction and technology has already been self-funded and developed to a abreast adaptable product, admitting added projects armamentarium the idea, again do the development.  Our access reduces the accident for abeyant investors and ensures that business can be accustomed the absorption it deserves as a ample majority of the aloft funds will not acquire been spent on analysis and development.

Moving on added bottomward the roadmap, we acquire a cardinal of affection extensions planned such as bigger anonymity, voting, burning messaging, amusing networks, decentralized accumulator and browsing, defended agreeable streaming, avant-garde scripting/DACs, programmable interfaces and abundant more…